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Mastitis While Breastfeeding: Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

Medically Reviewed by Michelle Roth, BA, IBCLC
Learn about the symptoms, treatment and causes of mastitis.

Has breastfeeding suddenly become exceptionally painful? Are you beginning to suspect it’s the result of a serious condition?

You may be right — it’s possible you have a breast infection known as mastitis.

Mastitis — pronounced mass-TIE-tiss — refers to breast tissue inflammation and infection. It’s common among breastfeeding women, though many are unaware of what causes it or how to treat it.

Having experienced mastitis ourselves, we know the pain, and we know how challenging it can be to find answers while also dealing with an infant. So we consulted with our medical experts and created this guide to help moms like you find answers to common questions about mastitis and get relief from the pain.

Key Takeaways

  • Mastitis is a breast infection caused by inflammation and blocked milk ducts, common in breastfeeding women.
  • Symptoms include tender lumps, redness, heat in the breast, and fever or flu-like symptoms.
  • Treatment includes antibiotics prescribed by a doctor and maintaining breastfeeding or pumping to empty the breasts.
  • To prevent mastitis, ensure proper latch during breastfeeding, maintain a consistent pumping schedule, and address any issues of milk oversupply.

What Causes Mastitis?

While mastitis can happen at any time in a woman’s life, it’s most common for breastfeeding moms.

Your milk ducts are a system of tubes inside your breasts. They carry breast milk to your nipples so your baby can feed.

Sometimes, your milk ducts can become obstructed, blocking the milk from flowing correctly. When this happens, your breast tissue becomes inflamed, swelling, and turning hard. When you touch your breast, you may even feel a lump.

The obstruction can form for several reasons (1):

  • Not-quite-empty breasts: Sometimes obstructions happen when your breast is not emptied of milk properly. This may be because your baby has difficulty latching or because you may not be feeding or pumping consistently enough.
  • Bacterial infections: If your nipple becomes cut, bacteria can get into your system, causing an infection.
  • Allergies: Inflammation due to allergies can also cause milk duct obstructions.
  • Tight clothing: Tight and restrictive clothing will increase pressure on the breast and slow milk flow. Ill-fitting bras and synthetic materials may also be part of the problem.

Plugged Duct or Mastitis?

Mastitis is sometimes referred to as a clogged or plugged duct. However, while similar, a plugged duct is usually a precursor to mastitis and isn’t technically infected. It can appear as a red lump on either side of the breast.

With a plugged duct, one specific spot on the breast may be red and tender, especially while breastfeeding. Luckily, you can treat a plugged duct with many of the same methods as mastitis — and, if treated quickly enough, it may never become mastitis at all.

What Are The Symptoms of Mastitis?

If a plugged duct progresses to mastitis, the symptoms will be relatively pronounced and will come on quickly.

Be on the lookout for the following (2):

  • Lumps: The swollen breast tissue will become hard, causing a small lump to form. Generally, the lump will feel tender and hot to the touch.
  • Redness: You may see a red area on the affected breast.
  • Heat: You might feel a hot, painful sensation throughout the breast and on the skin of your breast.
  • Fever: One of the hallmark symptoms of mastitis, rather than just a plugged duct, is fever and flu-like symptoms. Mastitis-related fevers are generally 101 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.

Mothers may find their symptoms are worse before breastfeeding and feel slightly better afterward.

Doctors can diagnose mastitis fairly easily with a physical examination and review of your symptoms. If you think you may have mastitis or a plugged duct, make an appointment with your physician.

Always Remember

If you think you may have mastitis, you should continue breastfeeding or pumping to avoid continued blockage, which may lead to the more serious appearance of an abscess.

How Is Mastitis Treated?

The two main treatments for mastitis focus on eliminating the infection and unclogging your milk ducts. Your doctor will prescribe you an antibiotic and advise you on your breastfeeding or pumping routine to ensure you empty your breasts properly.

Unless otherwise detailed by your doctor, this antibiotic will likely not interfere with your ability to breastfeed.

Treating Mastitis at Home

While treatments from the doctor will ultimately heal your mastitis, there are also several things you can do to improve and soothe your condition at home.

1. Drink water

Mastitis creates flu-like symptoms, such as fever, aches, and chills. With any infection, you should always drink enough fluids to keep your body fighting.

Drinking water is essential, but you can also add in other drinks, depending on your needs. This can include coconut water, some sports drinks, broth, or waters enriched with electrolytes to replace what you’ve lost from dehydration.

2. Take a shower

The warm water of a shower can help soften and relax your muscles. Your affected breast will likely be tight and sore. With a shower, not only will you feel better, but you can improve your milk flow.

If you can tolerate it, let the water stream from the showerhead and flow directly onto your chest. If that hurts too much, letting the water hit your back at the level of your breasts may help.

3. Try a warm compress

If you aren’t able to shower, you may still find some heat therapy helps. You can try this by putting a warm compress on your breast.

You can even make your own compress by filling a clean sock with rice, knotting it closed, and placing it in the microwave until it reaches the desired temperature.

Hot Tip

Always be careful when using compresses! You don’t want them to be too hot and burn your skin.

4. Try breast massage

A gentle breast massage can stimulate milk flow, draining away the clogged milk causing you so much pain.

You can do this massage by yourself or with an intimate partner. Experts suggest starting the massage on the outside of your breast, working your way toward the nipple.

If it does not cause you intense pain, a gentle massage on the lump or milk duct itself can also be beneficial.

Touchy Tip

If you have a history of mastitis, massage your breasts regularly. Unclogging a milk duct with a massage is a great way to prevent mastitis from recurring.

5. Nurse frequently

The best way to treat mastitis and keep it from recurring is to ensure your breasts are emptied of breast milk. Nurse frequently, and work with a lactation consultant if needed to ensure your baby is latching and transferring milk well.

Varying nursing positions — in a dangling feeding position, for instance — and nursing as much as possible with the affected breast will help treat mastitis.

If you’re unable to nurse, invest in a good breast pump and be diligent in finding a pumping schedule and technique that works for you.

How Long Does Mastitis Last?

After you begin antibiotics, you should start seeing improvement within two days. However, every case is different. Depending on the severity of your infection, it may take a few weeks to heal completely.

It’s essential you finish your round of antibiotics, even if you feel great after a few days. If you don’t, the infection may come back stronger than before.

Can I Breastfeed With Mastitis?

You may be wondering — if your breast is in so much pain, how can you nurse? Isn’t your breast milk affected if you have an infection?

These are good questions to ask — you always want to be aware of how changes in your body may negatively impact your little one. However, breastfeeding while you have mastitis is completely safe.

As previously stated, continuing to nurse or pump is essential for treating mastitis.

Breast Milk Note

If your baby suddenly refuses to nurse after you have mastitis, it may be because the milk has been altered slightly in taste, but it’s still safe to drink.

Pumping Breast Milk With Mastitis

In severe cases of mastitis, nursing your baby may be too excruciating.

Follow these three steps to pump your breast milk while you are dealing with mastitis:

  • Take some relief: Take over-the-counter pain relievers before pumping. Standard doses of ibuprofen and acetaminophen are considered safe for moms and babies while breastfeeding (3).
  • Pump up your pump: Use a stronger breast pump. Most companies will label their most powerful breast pumps as hospital-grade. These breast pumps will help ensure your breast milk is being emptied as fully as possible. You can rent a pump from a hospital or buy one online. These are usually much more expensive than regular breast pumps, so we recommend only purchasing one if you constantly struggle with mastitis or have trouble breastfeeding.
  • Try hand expressing: If pumping with a machine is painful, consider hand expressing your breast milk. While this may take longer than pumping, you can be more gentle with your hands and only press on areas that aren’t swollen.

What About A Long-Lasting Lump?

A breast lump can automatically make women feel worried or anxious. You can take a deep breath in knowing mastitis does not increase your risk for breast cancer (4).

However, if you have been treated for mastitis and the lump does not go away, visit your doctor for a breast examination. This is especially true if all other symptoms subside and there is no pain. Breast cancer lumps are generally painless (5).

Improving Milk Flow and Expression

It’s essential to ensure your breast milk is moving to prevent and treat mastitis. Every mother is different, but there are common breastfeeding issues that keep the milk from flowing.

1. Baby has trouble latching

Latching is defined as the act of your baby attaching to your breast to breastfeed. When your baby has a proper latch, the entire nipple and a good portion of your areola should be covered by your baby’s mouth, with those cute little lips out turned against your skin (6).

If your baby is struggling to latch on properly, many issues can arise.

You may experience pain and discomfort while your baby is cranky due to hunger. If not enough milk is expressed, your breasts can become engorged and swollen, leading to plugged ducts and mastitis.

To best way to improve your baby’s latch is to reach out to a lactation consultant. You can find one by doing a simple online search. A lactation consultant can help determine the specific problems you and your baby are having and find a solution that works for you.

Do everything you can to make breastfeeding a comfortable experience at home. Make sure you’ve eaten and gone to the bathroom. Change your baby’s diaper, and make sure you and baby both feel well supported wherever you’re sitting or lying down.

2. No time to pump

Some mothers are unable to breastfeed and must pump their breast milk due to medical reasons. Others work outside the home and cannot feed their baby directly.

There are a couple of things you can do to make sure you don’t experience breast engorgement:

  • Do double duty: Try to pump one breast while you nurse on the other. Use the football hold while nursing to ensure you have enough room for both your baby and the pump.
  • Try a pumping bra: These specially-designed bras will allow you to pump hands-free, leaving you with more ability to get things done.
  • Start a schedule: Make sure you accommodate your own breastfeeding needs. Create a schedule at work or at home that leaves times for pumping.

3. Producing too much milk

Milk production is one of the most consistent concerns new mothers have. Are they making enough? Or too much? Oversupply occurs when your body makes more milk than your baby can consume.

You can do a couple of things to handle an oversupply of milk. Visit with a lactation consultant to make sure your baby’s latch or feeding schedule isn’t tricking your body into creating more milk than necessary.

Then, do your best not to pump too much. If your body is consistently told to make more breast milk by over-pumping, it will likely trigger an overproduction of milk.

Give Back

Did you know you can donate your extra breast milk? After a simple screening process, milk banks will take what you don’t use and ensure the milk is given to mothers and babies who need it (7).

Mastitis and Breastfeeding FAQs

Can Nursing With Mastitis Make a Baby Sick?

No, breastfeeding with mastitis won’t make a baby sick. In fact, breastfeeding can help clear the infection. However, the milk may taste saltier, causing the baby to be fussier.

Is It Better to Pump or Breastfeed With Mastitis?

Both breastfeeding and pumping can help in relieving the blocked ducts. The important thing is to ensure milk keeps flowing from the affected breast.

Does Mastitis Affect Milk Quality?

While the milk is safe for the baby, mastitis can alter its flavor due to increased sodium content.

What is the Difference Between Mastitis and Clogged Duct?

A clogged duct is an area where milk flow is obstructed. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition, often caused by an infection, which might start as a clogged duct but progresses to include symptoms like fever and chills.

What Happens if Mastitis Is Left Untreated?

If left untreated, mastitis can create a breast abscess which is a painful pus collection that might need surgical drainage.

Have You Had Mastitis?

Mastitis is a painful condition, but you can easily treat it once you recognize the symptoms. Pay attention to how your breasts feel, and be vigilant about tenderness or flu-like symptoms.

Talk to your doctor if you have concerns or feel you need treatment. Try over-the-counter relief or a hot shower, and ensure you stay hydrated.

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Headshot of Michelle Roth, BA, IBCLC

Medically Reviewed by

Michelle Roth, BA, IBCLC

Michelle Roth, BA, IBCLC is a writer, editor, and board-certified lactation consultant for two busy pediatric practices. She is a former La Leche League Leader, Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and Certified Infant Massage Instructor.